PO | Emerging challenges for sustainable development and forest conservation in Sarawak, Borneo

Borneo’s forest (Fig 1) is disappearing at a rate of 0.25 Mha per year [6]. It has lost more than 18 Mha of forest since 1973 [1]. Consequently, more than 600 vertebrate and plant species are threatened with extinction risk in the region [7]. The persistent loss of forest and biodiversity has been occurring due to agriculture expansion, industrial-scale logging, oil-palm plantations, illegal hunting, and the expansion of roads and other infrastructure, such as hydroelectric dams [1, 6, 8–10]. The state of Sarawak, in Malaysian Borneo, has lost eighty percent of its primary forest over the last forty years [1].

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